We can use the Past Perfect to refer to an action that happened before another Past Simple action. For example: “When I arrived at the cinema, the film had already started.”
8:30pm: The film started.
9pm: I arrived at the cinema. “The film had already started when I arrived at the cinema:’
We form the Past Perfect with had + a past participle.
We can use question words (who, what, when, where, why, etc.) with the Past Perfect. For example:
a) Where had you put it?
b) What had they done?
The abbreviated forms are: I’d, you’d, he’d, she’d, it’d we’d, they’d.
- You had seen it before. (Affirmative)
- He hadn’t seen it before. (Negative)
- Had it seen it before? (Interrogative)