We use this/these for things near us.
This is a pen. These are pens.

This is my dog This computer is a stupid machine I can't read these words These are my books

We use that/those for things far from us.
That is a kite. Those are kites.

That is my car I love that country! Those two men are my friends Look at those stars

That is often contracted with the singular form of the verb be
That is a window. = That's a window.
That is my friend, Tom. = That's my friend, Tom.
This, these, and those can't take contractions.


These are my boots and that's my hat
I've got clothes, I've got clothes
Those are my trousers, that's my shirt
I can go outside to play
This is my ball and that's my kite
I've got toys, I've got toys
Those are my yo-yos, that's my bike
I can go outside to play